Bill Moggridge was a designer of first laptop and co-founder of IDEO, the author as well as educator. He was also the director of Cooper-Hewitt National  design  museum  in  New York. He was born in UK in 1943.He passed away on 2012 due to Cancer


   He studied industrial design from 1962-1965 at central St.Martins college of Art and Design London.

   In 1965,he started his first job as a designer for American sterilizer Co. designing hospital equipments.

   In 1969 Moggridge started his first company,Moggridge associate in London.

   In 1979,he started another office called ID2 was opened in U.S.A here he designed first laptop computer GRiD compass for GRiD systems.

   In 1991,Moggridge co-founded IDEO with David Kelly and Mike Nuttall.

   In 2010,Moggridge left IDEO and became the director of Cooper-Hewitt National design museum in Newyork.

            It is described as Moggridge carrier had three phases,first as the designer with project for client,second as a co-founder of IDEO ,third as a spoke person for the value of design in everyday life



It was the initial model designed by Moggridge for laptops in 1979 and laptop was introduced on April 1998.It consist of  Clamshell case made of Magnesium alloy. Clamshell means screen fold flat to rest of the computer when closed.

  • WEIGHT: It rated 5 kg .
  • SCREEN: 320 x240 pixel electro luminous display.
  • PROCESSOR: Intel 8086 processor.
  • MEMORY: 340 kilobyte magnetic bubble memory.
  • COMMUNICATION: 1200 bits per second modem.
  • POWER INPUT: ~110/220V AC, 47-66 Hz.
  • OPERATING SYSTEM: Compass uses its own operating system GRiD OS. It is the specialized software and high price meant for specialized application.

When GRiD compass was introduced, it was very costly of about $8125,hence it was initially used by NASA for Space application and military .Its high price and specialized OS limited its market in US.Even, laptops are lighter, cheaper and more powerful, manufacturers are still using  Moggridge  basic Clamshell concept. Even though, Moggridge name appears on Clamshell patent, the patent right was assigned to GRiD systems.

Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum

It’s a design museum in New York. It is a only museum in US for historical and contemporary design .Its has the largest collection of decorative units


It is one of the top 25 most innovative companies. It is a design firm and innovation consultancy for designing products, services and for digital experience

 It was found on1991 by merging  four design firm ,firm David Kelley design, Moggridge associates,ID2,and Matric product design.notable project works of  IDEO are  applet first mouse, microsofts second mouse




Bill Moggridge presented this concept tricycle that purifies water with rider pedal

It was developed to help people in the developing world  to make long journeys to collect water, which is often unsafe to drink.



An electric space heater, designed in 1973 by Bill Moggridge, .

The heater is roughly the size of a large book, It appears to be a minimal, rectangular outline. The solid black base with controls and the gently undulating red top and sides, comprise a form that expresses its essential function: warm air circulation. Air is drawn in through the side vents, compressed, and pushed out through the front by the heat exchanger. The colors and curves create a striking emotive quality, fitting for an object that provides warmth and comfort, and that shows the designer’s consideration of the people who would use the heater in their homes. Looks almost red wave of heat, the form also shows a sense of humor. Bill and his London-based firm, Moggridge Associates, designed the heater for Hoover Ltd.


  • In 2010 he was awarded Prince Philip design prize
  • In 2009 Nation  design award for  life time achievement



  • Designing  Interactions Introduction
  • History of interaction design

Bill Moggridge’s works


 Game controller    


 Marine radio


Mini Computer