Tim Berners-Lee

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Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee

Born: 8-June-1955
Birthplace: London, England
Gender: Male
Nationality: England
High School: Emanuel School, Wandsworth, England
University: BS Physics, Queen’s College, Oxford University (1976)
Invention: Inventor of the World Wide Web

Sir Tim Berners-Lee,British computer scientist, generally credited as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He created “WorldWideWeb” in 1990. It featured a server, HTML, URLs, and the first browser.
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While working as an independent contractor at the European high-energy physics laboratory (CERN) in 1980, Berners-Lee built a prototype system for document sharing among researchers based on hypertext called ENQUIRE. In 1989, he had a new proposal, written with the help of Robert Cailliau, based on combining hypertext with the Internet, which he called the “World Wide Web.” The world’s first website, at CERN, went online August 6, 1991.
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From 1991 to 1993 Berners-Lee evangelized the Web. In 1994 in the United States he established the World Wide Web (W3) Consortium at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Laboratory for Computer Science. The consortium, in consultation with others, lends oversight to the Web and the development of standards. In 1999 Berners-Lee became the first holder of the 3Com Founders chair at the Laboratory for Computer Science.
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In 1994, Berners-Lee left CERN and founded the World Wide Web Consortium at MIT, a group of member organizations, including vendors, willing to create standards for the Web. In 2004, he was knighted for his pioneering work.
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The World Wide Web(WWW) system uses marked-up text to represent a hypertext document for transmision over the network. The HyperText Markup Language language is an Structured General Markup Language(SGML) format. WWW parsers should ignore tags which they do not understand, and ignore attributes which they do not understand of tags which they do understand.All WWW pages are written in HTML.
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The World Wide Web is the complete set of documents residing on all Internet servers that use the HTTP protocol. These documents are accessible through a web browser and can be navigated by using hyperlinks that have been implemented using HTML . In short, the WWW is the web of interconnected pages and files that we are so used to browsing today.
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HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language, it is the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is used to define the structure and layout of a Web page, how a page looks and any special functions. HTML does this by using what are called tags that have attributes. HTML is related to SGML (Structured General Markup Language), JavaScript (a Netscape scripting language), and Java (a Sun Microsystems language). The single biggest feature of HTML is the ability to ‘hyperlink’ (jump) the reader to any other web page on the Internet.
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A URL (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) – usually pronounced by sounding out each letter but, in some quarters, pronounced “Earl” – is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet. A common way to get to a Web site is to enter the URL of its home page file in your Web browser’s address line. However, any file within that Web site can also be specified with a URL. Such a file might be any Web (HTML) page other than the home page, an image file, or a program such as a common gateway interface application or Java applet. The URL contains the name of the protocol to be used to access the file resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a pathname, a hierarchical description that specifies the location of a file in that computer.A URL for a file meant to be downloaded using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).A URL is a type of URI (Uniform Resource Identifier, formerly called Universal Resource Identifier).

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HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is an TCP/IP based communication protocol which is used to deliver virtually all files and other data, collectively called resources, on the World Wide Web. These resources could be HTML files, image files, query results, or anything else.
A browser works as a HTTP client because it sends requests to a HTTP server which is called Web server. The Web Server then sends responses back to the client.There are three important things about HTTP of which you should be aware:
• HTTP is connectionless: After a request is made, the client disconnects from the server and waits for a response. The server must re-establish the connection after it process the request.
• HTTP is media independent: Any type of data can be sent by HTTP as long as both the client and server know how to handle the data content. How content is handled is determined by the MIME specification.
• HTTP is stateless: This is a direct result of HTTP’s being connectionless. The server and client are aware of each other only during a request. Afterwards, each forgets the other. For this reason neither the client nor the browser can retain information between different request across the web pages.
Following diagram shows where HTTP Protocol fits in communication:
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Honors and awards

1995
• The Interactive Art Jury awarded him an Honorary Golden Nica in the category Interactive Art, which is the biggest rize to be won for computer art.
• Received a “Kilby Young Innovator” award by the THE KILBY AWARDS FOUNDATION
• Co-recipient of the ACM Software Systems Award.
• In 1995, Tim Berners-Lee received the Kilby Foundation’s “Young Innovator of the Year” Award, and an honorary Prix Ars Electronica, and was corecipient of the ACM Software Systems Award.
1996
• Honorary degree from the Parsons School of Design, New York (D.F.A., 1996) ,
• Honorary degree from Southampton University (D.Sc., 1996),
• Awarded a Distinguished Fellowship of the British Computer Society
1997
• He was awarded the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award, the Duddell Medal of the Institute of Physics, the Interactive Services Association’s Distinguished Service Award, the MCI Computerworld/Smithsonian Award for Leadership in Innovation.
• The International Communication Institute’s Columbus Prize, and an OBE.
1998
• He received the Charles Babbage award, the Mountbatten Medal of the National Electronics Council, the Lord Lloyd of Kilgerran Prize from the Foundation for Science and Technology, PC Magazine Lifetime Achievement Award in Technical Excellence, a MacArthur Fellowship and The Eduard Rhein technology award.
• Honorary degree from Essex University (D.U.).
• Honorary degree from Southern Cross University (1998).
1999
• Time magazine dubbed him one of the 100 greatest minds of the century and he received a World Technology Award for Communication Technology, and an Honorary Fellowship to the Society for Technical Communications.
2000
• Received the Paul Evan Peters Award of ARL, Educause and CNI, the Electronic Freedom Foundation’s pioneer award, and the George R Stibitz Computer Pioneer award at the American Computer Museum, and the Special Award for Outstanding Contribution of the World Television Forum.
• Honorary degree from the Open University (D.U., 2000),
2001
• Received the Sir Frank Whittle Medal from the Royal Academy of Engineering.
• Honorary degree from Columbia University (D.Law),
• Honorary degree from Oxford University
• Honorary degree from The University of Port Elizabeth (DSc).
• Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society,
• Honorary Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.,
• Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
• Fellow of the Royal Society.
2002
• Was the recipient of the Japan Prize from the Science and Technology Foundation of Japan.
• He shared the Prince of Asturias Foundadtion Prize for Scientific and Technical Research with with Larry Roberts, Rob Kahn and Vint Cerf; became a Fellow of the Guglielmo Marconi Foundation.
• Recieved the Albert Medal of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Art, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA).
2004
• Millennium Technology Prize; Finish Technology Award Foundation worth 1 million dollar
• Knighthood of the British Empire (KBE) for services to the global development of the Internet.

Publications

• He is the author, with Mark Fischetti, of the book Weaving theWeb on the the past present and future of the Web.

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Submitted by: ANJANA.R.KUMAR
Roll No: 6
Date of submission:04/04/2013
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