Sergey Brin-Roll no:28

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Sergey Brin was born on August 21, 1973 in Moscow, Russia. He is an internet entrepreneur and also a computer scientist. His family emigrated to the United States to escape Jewish persecution in 1979. He met Larry Page at Stanford University and the two created a search engine called google. Sergey Mihailovich Brin is the cofounder of Google, and is now the President of Technology at Google and has a net worth estimated at 11 billion US dollars.

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Sergey Brin co-founded Google Inc. in 1998. Today, he directs special projects. From 2001 to 2011, Sergey served as president of technology, where he shared responsibility for the company’s day-to-day operations with Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt.

 

 

 

He is the son of a Soviet mathematician economist. Brin had an interest in computers from an early age, and he received his first computer, a Commodore 64, from his father for his 9th birthday. Sergey’s natural talent for mathematics and computing was soon apparent, surprising a teacher by submitting a project printed from the computer, at a time before computers were commonplace. Brin also gives credit for his success to having attended Montessori schools. In 1990, after he finished high school, Brin enrolled in the University of Maryland to study Computer Science and Mathematics, receiving his Bachelors of Science in 1993 with high honors. After graduating he received a graduate fellowship from the National Science Foundation, which he used to study a masters degree in Computer Science at Stanford University, and completing it ahead of schedule in august 1995.

 

 

 

After receiving his degree in mathematics and computer science from the University of Maryland at College Park, Brin entered Stanford University, where he met Larry Page. Both students were completing doctorates in computer science. Sergey Brin’s defining moment in his life was when he met future Co-president of Google, Larry Page. From there started a partnership that changed the face of World Wide Web. Brin was assigned to show Larry around the university. However they did not get on well in the beginning, arguing about every topic they discussed. The pair soon found a shared common interest in retrieving information from large data sets. The pair later wrote what is widely considered their seminal contribution, a paper called “The Anatomy of a Large-scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine”. The paper has since become the tenth most accessed scientific paper at Stanford University.

The homepage for the Google News web site.

Soon after they started working on a project that later became the Google search engine. After trying to sell the idea failed, they wrote up a business plan and brought in a total initial investment of almost $1 million to start their own company. In September 1998 Google Inc. opened in Menlo Park, California. The company grew so quickly and gained so many employees’ a few office relocations were made due to lack of space, with Google Inc. finally settled in its current place at Mountain View, California. Over the next few years headed by Larry and Sergey Google made many innovations and added to its list of products and employee’s (nearly 5000 by 2006). By October 2004 Google announced their first quarterly results as a public offered company, with record revenues of $805.9 million. As of 2005 Brin has been estimated to be worth US$11 billion and is sixteenth in Forbes 400 list and ranked the 2nd richest American under the age of 40.

 

Despite Brin’s success, he has remained fairly unknown to the public. He is not known to live a lavish lifestyle, driving an inexpensive car and still renting a two-bedroom flat.

 

As a research project at Stanford University, Brin and Page created a search engine that listed results according to the popularity of the pages, after concluding that the most popular result would often be the most useful. They called the search engine Google after the mathematical term “Googol,” which is a 1 followed by 100 zeros, to reflect their mission to organize the immense amount of information available on the Web.

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Today Google is worth US $ 150 billion and is the biggest media corporation in the world. Sergey Brin himself has garnered a personal fortune of US $ 19.8 billion, and was ranked as the fifth most powerful man in the world by Forbes in 2009. He married Anne Wojcicki in the summer of 1997 on The Bahamas.

 

Brin and Page launched the company in 1998. Google has since become the world’s most popular search engine, receiving more than 200 million queries each day. Headquartered in the heart of California’s Silicon Valley, Google held its initial public offering in August 2004, making Brin and Page billionaires. Brin continues to share the company’s day-to-day responsibilities with Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt. In 2006, Google purchased the most popular Web site for user-submitted streaming videos, YouTube, for $1.65 billion in stock.

 

The search engine with Page and Brin’s unique algorithm was initially named “Backrub,” but they later settled on “PageRank,” named after Page. It soon caught on with other Stanford users when Page and Brin let them try it out. The two set up a simple search page for users, because they did not have a web page developer to create anything very impressive. They also began stringing together the necessary computing power to handle searches by multiple users, by using any computer part they could find. As their search engine grew in popularity among Stanford users, it needed more and more servers to process the queries.

 

In their first years in business, Brin served as president. The company continued to grow exponentially during 2001. Google even became a verb—to “Google” someone or something meant to search for it via the engine, but it was most commonly used in reference to checking out the Web presence of potential dates. Page and Brin’s company was the subject of articles in mainstream publications, but they continually rejected offers to go public—make their company a publicly traded one on Wall Street. They did, however, hire Eric Schmidt as chief executive officer and board chair in 2001. Schmidt was a veteran of Sun, where he had served as chief technology officer. As Brin explained to Betsy Cummings in Sales & Marketing Management, “Larry and I have done a good job,” but conceded that “the probability of doing something dumb” was still likely. “It’s clear we need some international strategy, and Eric brings that.”

 

Sergey received a bachelor’s degree with honors in mathematics and computer science from the University of Maryland at College Park. He is currently on leave from the Ph.D. program in computer science at Stanford University, where he received his master’s degree. Sergey is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a recipient of a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.

 

Sergey’s research interests include search engines, information extraction from unstructured sources, and data mining of large text collections and scientific data. He has published more than a dozen academic papers, including Extracting Patterns and Relations from the World Wide Web; Dynamic Data Mining: A New Architecture for Data with High Dimensionality, which he published with Larry Page; Scalable Techniques for Mining Casual Structures; Dynamic Itemset Counting and Implication Rules for Market Basket Data; and Beyond Market Baskets: Generalizing Association Rules to Correlations.

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Sergey has been a featured speaker at several international academic, business and technology forums, including the World Economic Forum and the Technology, Entertainment and Design Conference. He has shared his views on the technology industry and the future of search on the Charlie Rose Show, CNBC, and CNNfn. In 2004, he and Larry Page were named “Persons of the Week” by ABC World News Tonight.

 

 

 

Sergey has been a featured speaker at several international academic, business and technology forums, including the World Economic Forum and the Technology, Entertainment and Design Conference.

 

 

 

In May 2007, Brin married Anne Wojcicki in the Bahamas. Wojcicki is a biotech analyst and a 1996 graduate of Yale University with a B.S. in biology. She has an active interest in health information, and together she and Brin are developing new ways to improve access to it. As part of their efforts, they have brainstormed with leading researchers about the human genome project.

 

 

 

Brin is working on other, more personal projects that reach beyond Google. For example, he and Page are trying to help solve the world’s energy and climate problems at Google’s philanthropic arm Google.org, which invests in the alternative energy industry to find wider sources of renewable energy. The company acknowledges that its founders want “to solve really big problems using technology.”

 

 

 

In 2012, Brin has been involved with the Project Glass program and has demoed eyeglass prototypes. Project Glass is a research and development program by Google to develop an augmented reality head-mounted display (HMD). The intended purpose of Project Glass products would be the hands-free displaying of information currently available to most smartphone users, and allowing for interaction with the Internet via natural language voice commands.

 

 

 

Brin was also involved in the Google driverless car project. In September 2012, at the signing of the California Driverless Vehicle Bill, Brin predicted that within five years, robotic cars will be available to the general public.

 

 

 

Page and Brin strove to keep Google’s corporate culture relaxed in other ways, which they felt benefited the company in the long run. Its perks were legendary. There was free Ben and Jerry’s ice cream, an on-site masseuse, a ping-pong table, yoga classes, and even a staff physician. Employees could bring their dogs to work, and the company cafeteria was run by a professional chef who used to work for the rock band the Grateful Dead. Brin discussed his management philosophy with Cummings. “Since we started the company, we’ve grown twenty percent per month. Our employees can do whatever they want.”

 

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Douglas.Engelbart-Roll no:24

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Engelbart

 

Douglas Carl Engelbart was born on 30th of January, 1925,  lived in Portland Douglas graduated from Portland’s Franklin High School in 1942 and went on to study Electrical Engineering at Oregon State University.

Midway through his college studies at Oregon State University, in 1944 he was drafted into the US Navy, serving two years as a electronic/radar technician in the Philippines. It was there on a small island in a tiny hut up on stilts, that he first read the famous article of Vannevar Bush—”As We May Think“, which greatly inspired him.

He returned to Oregon State and completed his B.S. in Electrical Engineering, Oregon State University in 1948, then received a position as an electrical engineer in NACA Ames Laboratory, Mountain View, CA (now NASA), where he worked until 1951.

However, within three years he grew restless, feeling there was something more important he should be working on, dedicating his career to. He thought about the world’s problems, and what he as an engineer might possibly be able to do about them. He had read about the development of the computer, and even assisted in the construction of the California Digital Computer project (CALDIC), and seriously considered how it might be used to support mankind’s efforts to solve these problems. As a radar technician during the war he had seen how information could be displayed on a screen. He began to envision people sitting in front of displays, “flying around” in an information space where they could formulate and organize their ideas with incredible speed and flexibility. So he applied to the graduate program in Electrical Engineering at U.C. Berkeley to launch his new crusade.

Engelbart obtained a M.S. in Electrical Engineering in 1952, and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering with a specialty in Computers in 1955, along with a half dozen patents in “bi-stable gaseous plasma digital devices”, and then stayed on as Acting Assistant Professor. However, within a year he was tipped off by a colleague that if he kept talking about his “wild ideas” he’d be an Acting Assistant Professor forever. So he ventured back down the Peninsula in search of a more suitable outpost to pursue his vision.

He then formed a startup company, Digital Techniques, to commercialize some of his doctorate research on storage devices, but after a year decided instead to find a venue where he could pursue the research he had been dreaming of since 1951.

In 1959 started the most productive period in the life of Engelbart, as he was appointed as a Director of Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at Stanford Research Institute, position, which he keep until 1977. He recruited a research team (up to 47 people) in his new center, and became the driving force behind the design and development of the On-Line System, or NLS. He and his team developed computer-interface elements such as bit-mapped screens, the first computer mouse, hypertext, collaborative tools, and precursors to the graphical user interface, groupware (inc. shared-screen teleconferencing and computer-supported meeting room), etc.
He initiated ARPANet’s Network Information Center (NIC). On October 29, 1969, the world’s first electronic computer network, the ARPANET, was established between nodes at Leonard Kleinrock’s lab at UCLA and Engelbart’s lab at SRI. Interface Message Processors at both sites served as the backbone of the first Internet.

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Engelbart slipped into relative obscurity after 1976 due to various misfortunes and misunderstandings. Several of his best researchers became alienated from him and left his organization for Xerox PARC, in part due to frustration, and in part due to differing views of the future of computing. Engelbart saw the future in collaborative, networked, timeshare (client-server) computers, which younger programmers rejected in favor of the personal computer. The conflict was both technical and social: the younger programmers came from an era where centralized power was highly suspect, and personal computing was just barely on the horizon.
From 1977 until 1984 Engelbart worked as a Senior Scientist in Tymshare, Inc., Cupertino, CA. Tymshare had bought the commercial rights to NLS, renamed itAUGMENT, and set the system up as a principal line of business in their newly formed Office Automation Division.

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Douglas Engelbart has over 45 other patents to his name, e.g. seven patents relating to bi-stable gaseous plasma digital devices, resulting from work 1954-58, twelve patents relating to all-magnetic digital devices, resulting from work 1954-58, magnetic-core logic devices and circuits, the patent for the computer mouse from 1970, etc.

Douglas Engelbart is a holder of over forty awards and honors, including the National Medal of Technology, the Certificate of Special Congressional Recognition, the Lemelson-MIT Prize, the IEEE John Von Neumann Medal Award, the ACM Turing Award and the American Ingenuity Award.

 

 

Human Computer Interaction (HCI)

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The term human computer interaction is often used interchangeably with man machine interaction or interfacing. Descriptively, HCI is often termed as a design that enables the required functionality to be delivered by a computing device in line with its relationship between the user and the device itself.

The Basis of Human Computer Interaction lies in the core concept of usability. It was for the main reason of usefulness for man that machines were created. The best of computing machines are those that interact with individuals in the best possible manner that is required of them. The better the usability of a computing machine is, the better is its interaction with its stakeholders and thus it serves its purpose best. The inputs that a computing machine receives from its users are used to improve the extent of the human computer interaction.

The nature of human computer interaction has taken a new turn with the extensive use of internet and the ever increasing advancements in technology based devices. This new turn is characterized by networks and the social connections that have established via therm.  The ‘social’ nature of human computer interaction emerged when users got connected to each other via networks.

Computer  Mouse

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Stephen R. Bourne-Bini P.B,Roll no:11

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Stephen R. Bourne

Stephen Richard Bourne (Steve) (born 7 January 1944) is a computer scientist, originally from the United Kingdom and based in the United States for most of his career. He is most famous as the author of the Bourne shell (sh), which is the foundation for the standard command line interfaces to Unix.
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Bourne has a Bachelor’s degree in mathematics from King’s College London, England. He has a Diploma in Computer Science and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Trinity College, Cambridge. Subsequently he worked on an ALGOL 68 compiler at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory (see ALGOL 68C).
After Cambridge, Bourne spent nine years at Bell Labs with the Seventh Edition Unix team. As well as the Bourne shell, he wrote the adb debugger and The UNIX System, the second book on the UNIX system, intended for a general readership.
After Bell Labs, Bourne worked in senior engineering management positions at Silicon Graphics, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems.
Stephen R. Bourne
From 2000 to 2002 he was President of the Association for Computing Machinery.[2]
He is presently chief technology officer at ICON Ventures, a Menlo Park-based venture capital group in California.[3] He is also the chair of the Editorial Advisory Board for ACM Queue, a magazine he helped found when he was President of the ACM.[4] Additionally, he is a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and of the Royal Astronomical Society.
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Peter J Denning-Roll no:30

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Peter J. Denning (born 1942) is an American computer scientist and prolific writer. He is best known for pioneering work in virtual memory, especially for inventing the working-set model for program behavior, which addressed thrashing in operating systems and became the reference standard for all memory management policies. He is also known for his works on principles of operating systems, operational analysis of queueing network systems, design and implementation of CSNET, the ACM digital library, codifying the great principles of computing , and most recently for his book The Innovator’s Way, on innovation as a set of learnable practices.

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Denning was born January 6, 1942, in Queens, NY, and raised in Darien, CT.  He was interested in science from an early age and began building electronic circuits as a teenager. His computer built from pinball machine parts won the science fair in 1959, launching him into the new field of computing. He attended Manhattan College for a Bachelor inEE (1964) .At MIT for his doctorate in 1968, he worked on prototypes of computer utilities, precursors of today’s “cloud computing”. He became an educator and taught computer science at Princeton, Purdue, George Mason University, and Naval Postgraduate School. He was a pioneer in operating systems and computer networks and invented the “working set”, a way of automatically managing data flows in memory that is widely used in modern operating systems from desktops to smartphones. A strong advocate of computing as a domain of science on par with the traditional physical, life, and social sciences, he has codified the Great Principles of Computing. In the 1980s, while directing a research lab at NASA Ames Research Center, he became interested in how he could teach his students and researchers to be successful innovators, broadening his attentions to the human practices of technology adoption. From 1980 to 1982 he wrote 24 columns as ACM President, focusing on technical and political issues of the field. From 1985 to 1993 he wrote 47 columns on “The Science of Computing” for American Scientist magazine,focusing on scientific principles from across the field. Beginning in 2001 he has written quarterly “IT Profession” columns for Communications of the ACM, focusing on principles of value to practicing professionals.

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ACM honored Peter J. Denning, Naval Postgraduate School (who served as President of ACM from 1980-82), with a special award “for his exceptional vision, devotion, and commitment to excellence. His 40 years of dedication and guidance have been an inspiration to the Association and all those who have served with him.”

In 1970 he published a classic paper that displayed a scientific framework for virtual memory and the validating scientific evidence, putting to rest a controversy over virtual memory stability and performance.

In 1966 he proposed the working set as a dynamic measure of memory demand and explained why it worked using the locality idea introduced by Les Belady of IBM. His working set paper,became a classic.

In 1999, he expanded the search for fundamental principles to cover all of computing. The discovery of natural information processes in biology, physics, economics, materials, and other fields convinced him that the basic definitions of computation had to be modified to encompass natural information processes as well as artificial.

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Denning has been a major influence in computing education. In the early 1970s he led a task force that designed the first core course on operating systems (OS) principles. OS became the first non-math CS core course. In the mid 1980s he led a joint ACM/IEEE committee that described computing as a discipline with nine functional areas and three cognitive processes, the basis of ACM Curriculum 1991. In the 1990s he set out on a quest to codify the great principles of computing. He maintains that computing is a science both of natural and artificial information processes. NSF designated him a Distinguished Education Fellow in 2007 to launch a movement to use the Great Principles framework for innovations in education and research. In 2009, ACM’s SIGCSE (Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education) recognized his contributions with its lifetime service award.

REFERENCES

 

 

 

MANUEL BLUM

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 MANUEL  BLUM

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Manuel Blum,  (born April 26, 1938, Caracas, Venez.), Venezuelan-born American mathematician and computer scientist and winner of the 1995 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, in “recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.”

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Blum earned a bachelor’s degree (1959) and a master’s degree (1961) in electrical engineering and a doctorate (1964) in mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After finishing his studies, Blum joined the computer science department at the University of California, Berkeley.

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In 1999 Carnegie Mellon University succeeded in recruiting Blum and his wife, Lenore, from Berkeley’s computer science department. An important motivation for them to leave their professorships at Berkeley was the chance to join their son, Avrim Blum, who had joined Carnegie Mellon’s computer science department in 1991. The parents moved into offices on either side of their son, and all three have collaborated on several computer science projects. In particular, the three are part of the ALADDIN (algorithm adaptation dissemination and integration) project, which received funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation for matching algorithms developed in academia with potential industrial applications.

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In 2000 Yahoo! Inc., an American Internet search engine company, contacted the computer science department at Carnegie Mellon for help in distinguishing human and computer visitors to its Web site. Manuel Blum was one of the scientists who took up the challenge, which led to the creation of the CAPTCHA (completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart). As sophisticated computer programs have been developed to discern simply disguised words in CAPTCHAs, Blum and others have continued to experiment with more complex distortions that test the limits of human recognition.

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Blum was elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1988), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1995), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (2002), and the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (2006).

 

 

Rasmus Lerdorf-Roll no:26

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Rasmus Lerdorf

Rasmus Lerdorf is a Danish programmer with Canadian citizenship and is most notable as the creator of the PHP scripting language. He started the PHP Project back in 1995 and has been actively involved in PHP development ever since. Also involved in a number of other Open Source projects, Rasmus is a long time Apache contributor and foundation member. He is the author of the first edition of the PHP Pocket Reference, and the co-author of Programming PHP

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His family moved to Canada in 1980, and moved to King City in 1983.He graduated from King City Secondary School in 1988, and in 1993 he graduated from the University of Waterloo with Bachelor of Applied Science in Systems Design Engineering. He contributed to the Apache HTTP Server and he added the LIMIT clause to the MSQL DBMS. The LIMIT clause was later adapted by several other DBMS.

From September 2002 to 6 November 2009 he was employed by Yahoo! Inc. as an Infrastructure Architecture Engineer. In 2010, he joined WePay in order to develop their API.

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Throughout 2011 he was a roving consultant for startups. On 22 February 2012 he announced on Twitter that he had joined Etsy.

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Lerdorf is a frequent speaker at Open Source conferences around the world. During his keynote presentation at OSCMS 2007, he presented security vulnerability in each of the projects represented at the conference that year.

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Facts

  • Lerdorf joined Yahoo in 2002 and has worked for the company as engineer and then left in 2009.
  • PHP was developed further and commercialized by Zend, but Lerdorf has maintained an ongoing involvement with the open source project

In 2003, he was named to the MIT Technology Review TR100 as one of the top 100 innovators in the world under the age of 35

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JAMES GOSLING –By Catherine( Roll No:13)

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James Gosling(born 1955),is a Canadian computer scientist,best known as father of java programming.

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He is generally credited with having invented the Java programming language in 1994.He created the original design of Java and implemented the language’s  original

Compiler and virtual machine.

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 He has also made contributions to several other software systems such as NeWS and Gosling Emacs.

PUBLICATIONS

The Java Programming Language,Fourth Edition(2005)

The Java Langauage specification,Third Edition(2005)

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Honours And Awards:

Made an officer of the order of canada(2007)

Awarded the Economist Innovation Award(2002)

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